The winners do not view resistance as an
unexplainable force that mysteriously affects people. They do view
resistance to the change objectives as a natural and
understandable human reaction to disruption brought on by the
There are a number of implementation barriers,
some blatant, some subtle, that can inhibit the successful
execution of a change and which can quickly thwart even the most
sincere efforts. A few examples of some of the more common ones
• When the corporate vision or specific
business strategies are unclear, there may be confusion over how
the changes should be interpreted.
• When an organization has a history of
poorly implemented strategic plans, the members of that
organization may expect little substance when more new changes
• Middle managers may lack any feeling of
the ownership and involvement necessary for enthusiastic support
• If managers and supervisors do not
understand or believe in the change themselves they will not be
effective change agents or supportive sponsors.
• Punishing errors and rewarding the
absence of mistakes promotes an environment of low risk-taking
in which "nothing ventured, nothing gained" is more
vice than virtue.
• When there is an absence of positive or
negative consequences for complying with a change objective, the
targets of that change may ignore new directives.
• When resistance surfaces, it may be
denied or suppressed. When overt resistance is not acknowledged
and managed, it goes underground, resulting in such covert
activity as slowdowns, malicious compliance, or even outright