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RFID and Logistics Management
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Lean Manufacturing, Basics, Principles, Techniques

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The RFID Frequencies Bands

Frequency band allocation for the use of radio devices is regulated by federal agencies such as the FCC in the U.S., PTT in Germany, and so on. There are limitations to the bands available within which RFID systems can function. However, several bands have evolved through­out the spectrum where you will find these systems in use. There are definite tradeoffs to consider for each band. Therefore, it is important to understand the application requirements before selecting a particu­lar type of RFID system

Comparing Frequencies

Low frequency
Below 500 kHz

Short to medium range
Medium data rate

Not orientation sensitive

Reads through non-metallics

Low power levels

Inexpensive

Noise sensitive

 

 

The RFID Frequencies Bands

Frequency band allocation for the use of radio devices is regulated by federal agencies such as the FCC in the U.S., PTT in Germany, and so on. There are limitations to the bands available within which RFID systems can function. However, several bands have evolved through­out the spectrum where you will find these systems in use. There are definite tradeoffs to consider for each band. Therefore, it is important to understand the application requirements before selecting a particular type of RFID system.

The design approach to the implementation of the technology differs according to the performance requirements of the application.

Performance Requirements/Attributes

The list includes

read range

penetration

centralized versus distributed

form factor

memory capacity

collision avoidance

speed/data rat

security

line-of-sight

interoperability

cost.

The Art of Antenna Patterns

The electromagnetic field pattern where the transponder is read is highly affected by such things as the size and shape of the readout antenna and the orientation of the transponder as it passes through the field. There is really an art to designing readout antennas to suit the needs of an application. (See figure 3.)

APPLICATION PROFILE—CHEVROLET

Chevrolet Creative Services—Trade Show Equipment Management

      Inventory control and tracking of 3,500 crates at the warehouse.

      Each crate uniquely ID'd with a tag.

      Read by in-floor antennas at dock doors.

      ID compared to manifest held in host database.

If ID matches database information, a green light signals "go" to ship crate. No match activates a red light. Crate shipments in and out (time/date stamped) are automatically recorded.

Benefits

APPLICATION PROFILE—LULLIGAN FLOWER EXCHANGE

Product Inbound Logistics and Trading Floor Automation

      Lulligan Flower Exchange, world's first auction house for potted
plants.

      During peak auction hours, 5,000 man-high containers each carry­
ing hundreds of plants traverse the bidding area on tracks at a rate
of up to 30 a minute.

      200 buyers jostle to bid.

      Lot number flashes to auctioneers/buyers.

      Buyers also tagged.

      Delivered plants: 

       -      get graded and catalogued

       -      loaded to tagged rolling containers

       -      rolled to auction bag.

Benefits

 

      One hour saved each day in sorting/identifying plants. Two fewer
workers needed for administration.

      Auction error rate gone to zero.

     Buyers able to make clearer decisions.

     Auction house able to be more flexible.

     Flower shop customers receive orders faster.

To Be Continued


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