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Preventive Maintenance Approach
Part 2 of 4


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Demand Management

In maintenance, "demand" is represented by the require­ments for resources in different categories of maintenance activity. Typically these categories include:

• preventive maintenance
• predictive maintenance
• planned and scheduled work
• project management
• unplanned or unscheduled work
• breakdowns, emergency conditions
• safety requirements

Before maintenance plans and schedules can be developed, the workload to be managed must be identified, classified and prioritized. Thus, the objective of maintenance de­mand management requires recognition of the distribution of aggegate requirements with an emphasis on distributing resources toward a comprehensive preventive/predictive approach. All categories must be considered, however the priorities in long-range planning should reflect a larger distribution of resources in the categories which lend themselves to planning and scheduling maintenance work, hence being proactive rather than reactive.

High-level "rough-cut" projections across a long-range plan­ning horizon coupled with simulation techniques enable maintenance planners to develop "what if" types of analy­ses. The benefit derived from this type of analysis is measured in terms of the gain in the degree of equipment reliability and the ability to more appropriately target resources at a rough-cut level and balance these against workload demand in all categories. Through various iterations of resource balancing alternatives, the impacts of different distributions can be measured and assessed, and lay the foundation for achievable plans.

Workload Planning and Scheduling

Once demand is classified and prioritized, mechanisms to manage it must be put in place. Managing the workload means coordinating manpower (capacity) and material requirements with medium and short range maintenance plans.
The planning system must consider keeping these vari­ables in balance: a lack of preventive and predictive maintenance results in high repair and downtime costs. Thus the maintenance approach is not appropriate to support the production environment. As a corollary, too much preventive and predictive maintenance can result in high levels of controllable maintenance costs. Preventive and predictive maintenance are controllable costs, unlike breakdown maintenance which is not controllable. An effective planning system strikes a balance between these variables, and facilitates realization of the first mainte­nance strategy element.

The highest level of the workload planning and scheduling process begins with disaggregating maintenance activity requirements established through demand management into planning horizons. This represents a production planning/master scheduling process for maintenance. The emphasis is on a detailed analysis of the plant's preventive and predictive maintenance requirements and the costs associated with developing appropriate expenditure levels. Much of this information can be provided by manufacturer's specifications, crew knowledge of requirements by equip­ment type, model or location and equipment history files maintained in a computerized database. At this level, the planning process considers "rough- cut" material and man­power (capacity) requirements in all categories. The em­phasis is on satisfying the required preventive and predic­tive levels for the plant. The rough-cut profile is necessary for a complete analysis and to drive the plan down to detailed schedules and time frames.

In the short range, workload requirements by category can be slotted into specific time budgets and resources can be allocated—crews assigned and materials reserved in stocked or purchase orders initiated. The short range schedules provide the basis for "launching" maintenance work orders when resources are available. Work orders are an integral part of a maintenance system, tying together the different elements of the system, material requirements planning, manpower (capacity) planning, job sequencing (task defini­tion and scheduling) with overall planning and scheduling and maintenance cost management. The work order pro­vides a picture of planned resource requirements and associated costs for a particular maintenance activity. Time requirements and calendar days can be targeted to the activity in the work order. The work order also provides the basis for activity and cost reporting. Crew time can be accumulated and tracked against the orders, materials required and consumed can be identified and costed in the orders, and external costs for non-stock materials or sub­contracted services can be tracked. Actual cost and time information can be accumulated in the order with job completion and techinical reporting stored in the equip­ment history database. This information—a comparison of planned to actual time for maintenance activities and costs—can be used as the basis for benchmarking perfor­mance and developing future plans for maintenance activi­ties.

To Be Continued


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