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Black Box and White Box Testing

For program testing, two categories of verification can be used. The first is a black box test, or functional test. The tester designs test cases based on functional specifications. The tester is not concerned with how the program accom­plishes the specification. He treats the program like a black box. The second method is a white box test, or structural test. The tester designs test cases based on detailed examination of internal program code and system structure. The test method is to exercise as many paths with the program and system as possible, with the goal of causing an error. White box testing is more extensive than black box testing, but it requires that the person preparing the test protocol have knowledge of the program's internal structure. Research has shown that the most successful software testing is a combination of black box and white box testing [2].

Complete Range of Test Conditions

When developing test protocols, it is important that as many conditions as possible be tested. This includes normal cases (data that is normally expected), invalid cases (data that must be rejected), and boundary cases (data that is marginally valid or invalid). Test cases should also test for exceptional data (e.g., special characters) and cases where no data is entered (empty files, restart condi­tions, etc.). Test cases should also include missing paths (i.e., the user omits a required step), wrong paths (i.e., the user executes steps in the wrong sequence), and wrong actions (e.g., the user attempts "unreasonable" actions or actually tries to "break the system").

Comprehensive System and Acceptance Testing

In addition to the program verification methods described above, a number of additional tests should be performed during the Integrated System Test or the Acceptance Test phases. These include, but are not limited to, the following.

1. A. volume test exercises the system with real-world or a maximum amount of data. This is necessary because previous testing may have only involved small amounts of test data. The load / stress test evaluates the system's ability to handle overload conditions.

2. Human factor testing is designed to ensure that the system/user interface leads the operator to correct under­standing and use. This would include testing of the SOPs and all system documentation, perhaps with users that were not previously involved in the system development.

3. A. performance test measures the ability of a system to perform its function in an acceptable manner (e.g. acceptable response time and throughput).
 
4. Security testing determines to what extent the system can detect and prevent unauthorized access or corrup­tion of data. This includes the ability of the system to detect or prevent the introduction of computer viruses.

5. ^configuration audit is the process of verifying that all hardware and software components have been in­stalled at the correct version, that the technical docu­mentation is complete and accurate, and that all change requests have been resolved.

6. Recovery testing involves testing of the disaster recov­ery plan to ensure that the system can recover from data loss, data damage, or system failure, within an acceptable time frame.

7. A reliability assessment is the process of determining the achieved level of reliability for a system, measured as mean-time-between-failure (MTBF), number of fail­ures or errors per period, maintenance man-hours per period, or some other measure of reliability. The reliability assessment can begin during acceptance testing and should be continued throughout the Opera­tion and Maintenance phase.

8. A robustness assessment is an evaluation of software to determine how well it can continue to operate despite introduction of invalid inputs, power failures, or other exceptional conditions.

Planning and Organizing the Validation Effort

There are three types of system validation. Developmental validation is done for a new system during its development. This is the easiest form of validation because it can be done as part of normal system development. Developmental validation is consistent with the total quality concept of "designed in" quality. Acceptance validation is performed for a new or modified system as part of the implementation or "go live" process. Retrospective validation is performed when an unvalidated system is already in live use. This is the process of going back and doing what should have been done when the system was first developed. Retrospective validation is an after-the-fact attempt to "inspect in" quality.

To Be Continued


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