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TPM: Total Productive Maintenance
Part 2 of 6


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The Ownership Maintenance (Jishu Hozen) program of TPM has a step by step implementation. Step 1 is Cleaning of Equipment. Equipment is thoroughly cleaned inside, with covers removed, and outside. During the cleaning various abnormalities in the equipment are discovered. Each abnormality is noted on a tag and that location tagged. A carbon copy is pulled out of each tag. A list of abnormalities is prepared using the carbon copies as refer­ence, at the end of the tagging exercise. A red tag is used for work that requires help from Maintenance

Personnel and a green tag for corrective action that can be performed by the operators. During the process operators begin to realize the extent of degradation of the equipment which comes as a bit of a shock. After the cleaning a motivation pattern sets in as operators want to prevent the hard earned gains of cleaning from being lost by renewed contamination. Step 2 is Countermeasures against Sources of Contamination. These Sources are listed as action items and appropriate countermeasures taken. Step 3 is setting standards for Cleaning and Lubrication. Step 4 is General Inspection of Equipment by operators after they have undergone train­ing in each of the technical fields that relate to their equipment. After each Step operators carry out a self-audit which is followed by a managers audit. A team only proceeds to the next step after it has passed the audit.

There is a clear framework for supporting TPM in the organization. TPM requires the participation of all person­nel from top managers to line workers. This participation is ensured through small group or team activities at each level, using the company's existing organization structure. In TPM once the TPM policy is developed by top manage­ment and integrated into top management's plans, the senior managers set their own policies and targets to fit the overall goals. This process is continued down the line to small groups on the shop floor, where lower level targets are taken up consistent with the higher level targets. Small groups are formed at each level of the hierarchy by higher level managers, middle level managers and so on. These higher level groups direct the overall effort, verify progress of TPM in action, and do analysis of TPM activities. Middle level groups may experiment with equipment models to try to increase the effectiveness of ownership maintenance and team improvement (kaizen) activities. TPM is a top-down process even though ownership maintenance calls for motivation and initiative of the operators. If the higher level groups are not active, how can one expect the lower level groups to be active.

To link each of these groups at each level of the hierarchy, a linking pin arrangement is used by having the leader of each group be a member of the group above it. This facilitates the flow of information in both directions.

Team Improvement (Kaizen)

Team Improvement efforts (Kaizen) are a key part of TPM and is planned systematically by the TPM Promotion Office staff. The Promotion Office staff together with top manage­ment direct the overall effort.
As part of the planning equipment models are selected for each department, subsection, etc. Project teams are formed from production engineering, maintenance staff and line supervisors. Information is collected for Benchmarks (BM) on each of the 6 big equipment losses (Breakdowns, Minor Stoppages, Speed Loss, Defect Loss, Startup Loss, and Setup Loss). Targets are set for a 3 month period and formal assignments are given to teams. Kaizen activity is then tracked and records kept. This Kaizen activity is synchronized with the Ownership Maintenance Activity Steps 1-4 (Jishu Hozen) previously described.
In addition the Maintenance department plans its activi­ties for Planned Maintenance to support the TPM team efforts in the Ownership Maintenance (Jishu Hozen), and Kaizen improvement of specific Loss areas.

A strong parallel effort is made in Education and Training, which starts before the launch of TPM and continues throughout TPM implementation. The TPM education at the initial stage takes the form of TPM Executives Course
for top managers and TPM Managers Course for managers and supervisors. Supervisors develop their own materials to train operators. After launch of TPM, specialized train­ing on Maintenance topics and on the job training of operators by Maintenance personnel (including One Point Lessons), form part of the TPM training for operators. Education and Training at all levels is the engine that powers TPM throughout Ownership Maintenance, Team Improvement (Kaizen), Planned Maintenance, and Equip­ment Planning activities.

There is extensive discussion in the company before launch of TPM as it is important for all employees to have a clear understanding of what TPM is, why the company needs it, and what would happen if TPM is not practiced. The degree of success a company has in TPM depends on whether top and middle managers understand why the company needs TPM, how convinced they are that TPM will help the company meet customer demands for Price, Quality, Deliv­ery, 3 years hence.

To be Continued

For balance of this article, click on the below link:

Lean Manufacturing Articles and go to Series 01


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