Maintenance (Jishu Hozen) program of TPM has a step by step
implementation. Step 1 is Cleaning of Equipment. Equipment is
thoroughly cleaned inside, with covers removed, and outside. During
the cleaning various abnormalities in the equipment are discovered.
Each abnormality is noted on a tag and that location tagged. A
carbon copy is pulled out of each tag. A list of abnormalities is
prepared using the carbon copies as reference, at the end of the
tagging exercise. A red tag is used for work that requires help from
Personnel and a
green tag for corrective action that can be performed by the
operators. During the process operators begin to realize the extent
of degradation of the equipment which comes as a bit of a shock.
After the cleaning a motivation pattern sets in as operators want to
prevent the hard earned gains of cleaning from being lost by renewed
contamination. Step 2 is Countermeasures against Sources of
Contamination. These Sources are listed as action items and
appropriate countermeasures taken. Step 3 is setting standards for
Cleaning and Lubrication. Step 4 is General Inspection of Equipment
by operators after they have undergone training in each of the
technical fields that relate to their equipment. After each Step
operators carry out a self-audit which is followed by a managers
audit. A team only proceeds to the next step after it has passed the
There is a clear
framework for supporting TPM in the organization. TPM requires the
participation of all personnel from top managers to line workers.
This participation is ensured through small group or team activities
at each level, using the company's existing organization structure.
In TPM once the TPM policy is developed by top management and
integrated into top management's plans, the senior managers set
their own policies and targets to fit the overall goals. This
process is continued down the line to small groups on the shop
floor, where lower level targets are taken up consistent with the
higher level targets. Small groups are formed at each level of the
hierarchy by higher level managers, middle level managers and so on.
These higher level groups direct the overall effort, verify progress
of TPM in action, and do analysis of TPM activities. Middle level
groups may experiment with equipment models to try to increase the
effectiveness of ownership maintenance and team improvement (kaizen)
activities. TPM is a top-down process even though ownership
maintenance calls for motivation and initiative of the operators. If
the higher level groups are not active, how can one expect the lower
level groups to be active.
To link each of
these groups at each level of the hierarchy, a linking pin
arrangement is used by having the leader of each group be a member
of the group above it. This facilitates the flow of information in
efforts (Kaizen) are a key part of TPM and is planned systematically
by the TPM Promotion Office staff. The Promotion Office staff
together with top management direct the overall effort.
As part of the planning equipment models are selected for each
department, subsection, etc. Project teams are formed from
production engineering, maintenance staff and line supervisors.
Information is collected for Benchmarks (BM) on each of the 6 big
equipment losses (Breakdowns, Minor Stoppages, Speed Loss, Defect
Loss, Startup Loss, and Setup Loss). Targets are set for a 3 month
period and formal assignments are given to teams. Kaizen activity is
then tracked and records kept. This Kaizen activity is synchronized
with the Ownership Maintenance Activity Steps 1-4 (Jishu Hozen)
In addition the Maintenance department plans its activities for
Planned Maintenance to support the TPM team efforts in the Ownership
Maintenance (Jishu Hozen), and Kaizen improvement of specific Loss
A strong parallel
effort is made in Education and Training, which starts before the
launch of TPM and continues throughout TPM implementation. The TPM
education at the initial stage takes the form of TPM Executives
for top managers and TPM Managers Course for managers and
supervisors. Supervisors develop their own materials to train
operators. After launch of TPM, specialized training on Maintenance
topics and on the job training of operators by Maintenance personnel
(including One Point Lessons), form part of the TPM training for
operators. Education and Training at all levels is the engine that
powers TPM throughout Ownership Maintenance, Team Improvement
(Kaizen), Planned Maintenance, and Equipment Planning activities.
There is extensive
discussion in the company before launch of TPM as it is important
for all employees to have a clear understanding of what TPM is, why
the company needs it, and what would happen if TPM is not practiced.
The degree of success a company has in TPM depends on whether top
and middle managers understand why the company needs TPM, how
convinced they are that TPM will help the company meet customer
demands for Price, Quality, Delivery, 3 years hence.
To be Continued
For balance of this article, click on the below link:
Lean Manufacturing Articles and go to Series 01
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