strategic questions management must wrestle with relate to future
price, quality and delivery. What price will customers demand 3
years hence? What improvements in Quality? What lead times for new
products? TPM is indispensable in meeting these demands.
Strategic Aspect of
What makes it
possible to produce products of the future demanded quality at the
future demanded cost? It is the machines and the people behind the
machines. It is the know-how and right attitudes to restore the
degradation in the equipment and to maintain the equipment at the
optimal conditions, it is the know-how to operate the equipment at
the maximum efficiency, it is the know-how to design the new
equipment to its optimal conditions.
This change in
thinking and the know-how behind it constitute TPM or Total
equipment striving for the optimal conditions leads to zero
breakdowns, and zero breakdowns of equipment lead to zero defects.
Striving for zero breakdowns and zero defects targets leads to
significant cost reductions which in turn provide the needed cost
and quality to protect investment and jobs in the future. This is
the TPM chain reaction.
Automation, TPM takes on an added significance.
Automation, Equipment and the operators knowledgeable about the
equipment is the critical factor in the production process. Losses
in the efficiency of the equipment generate losses in the area of
cost and profit. Losses can be breakdown losses, minor stoppage
loss, speed loss when degraded equipment is operated at lower
speeds, and defect/rework loss. True factory automation in the sense
of unmanned lunch or nighttime operation is impossible until these
losses are eliminated.
Results of TPM
TPM covers the
whole spectrum of manufacturing industry. Industries where TPM has
been implemented are the fabrication and assembly industries,
including companies in automobile, household electrical appliances
and makers of semiconductors and electronic components. It has been
introduced in process industries such as oil refining,
petrochemicals, general chemicals, steel, foods, gas, cement,
paper, pharmaceuticals, glass, rubber, tires, and printing. It is
also implemented by Equipment Manufacturers.
Results for many of
the 235 plants that have achieved the level corresponding to the PM
Excellent Plant Prize awarded by the Japan Institute of Plant
Maintenance (JIPM, founding body of TPM) are striking. Achievements
of greater than 90% reduction in Breakdowns, defects down by 90%,
customer complaints down by 75%, 50% reduction in goods-in-process
and finished goods inventories, cost of goods manufactured down by
30%. These results were achieved over the 3 year span it normally
takes to complete comprehensive plant wide TPM prior to examination
for the PM Excellent Plant Prize. Some plants have experienced as
much as 99% reduction in breakdowns. One auto plant had 5000
breakdowns per month, this was brought down to 50 or 1% of the
previous figure. (Source: JIPM)
From the standpoint
of revitalization and motivation management TPM record is
outstanding. TPM plants have a new feeling and spirit, worker
suggestions have increased 5 to 10 times, and small group Kaizen
activities focused on equipment improvements are vigorous.
One of TPM's key
people features is ownership of equipment by operators. This is a
strategy to get operators to take responsibility for their
equipment. To take responsibility operators have to perform some
physical activities to this end. In TPM operators perform basic
steps in cleaning, maintenance and inspection of their equipment
with the training and support of Maintenance personnel. This
stimulates operator motivation and understanding to look for and
correct abnormalities in their equipment before that abnormality
develops to the point of equipment breakdown. The new knowledge
gained, the realization of their new capabilities, and the clean
smooth running equipment give operators a new pride and joy in the
With the tasks of
basic maintenance in the hands of trained operators Maintenance
personnel can now devote more time to equipment improvements,
planned and predictive maintenance, thus advancing the company's
maintenance technology and equipment management, and reducing
To be Continued
For balance of this article, click on the below link:
Lean Manufacturing Articles and go to Series 01
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