B. Subordinate Roles
1. Rebel. The Rebel firmly believes that individual survival and the
search for power are acceptable behavior. He fears lack of respect
and attempts to acquire power by confrontation. Most often, the
Rebel is a trouble-maker, a complainer, and a "no-sayer" who blames
a. The Rebel prides himself on his role as a critic and his ability
to suggest change. Consequently, he often is an innovator and does
stress systems enough to generate change. He has little tolerance
for weakness and continually tests his manager for weak points.
b. The Rebel wants and assumes POWER as quickly as possible but
2. Ingratiator. The Ingratiator (submissive) is the organization
man, the yes-man, or the brown-noser. The key to his survival is in
support and protection, but he is not passive. He is actively
manipulating his superior. This individual tends to be self-blaming
and masochistic, but seeks power and status.
a. The Ingratiator has a high value for structure and traditional
power. He is perceived as loyal and supportive, thereby increasing
the likelihood of being the heir-apparent.
b. This role accepts OBLIGATION as a trade-off for later POWER.
3. Critic. The Critic or Cooperator is objective and
solution-oriented. He is an idea man who is honestly critical. He
seeks solutions and blames no one. The Critic sometimes appears cold
and distant, but only because he has no desire to manipulate
a. The Critic works best where he can devote his energy to
problem-solving without being required to support relationships. He
is an excellent confidante who believes that the superior wants the
b. The Critic accepts OBLIGATION, but requires enough POWER to
complete the task.
This can best be defined by looking at Figure 1. The matrix depicts
the three leadership roles and the three follower roles with the
possible interactions. These interactions can be subdivided into
three major groups: (1) Complementary, (2) Non-complementary, (3)
Negotiating. A discussion of each follows.
A. Role Interactions—Complementary
1. Authoritarian—Ingratiator. The Authoritarian manager tends to
seek out persons who will affirm and support his policies. The
"yes-man" will confirm the Authoritarian's action whether or not he
agrees. However, the subordinate perceives that if the system is
maintained, he will ultimately be given a superior position.
As a condition of employment, all subordinates recognize the need to
surrender power. In this relationship, the Ingratiator gives up all
power and is given all the obligation by the Authoritarian. This
action will support the Authoritarian's ego, because the Ingratiator
will be dependent upon him.
This role structure is self-perpetuating and tends to be supported
by organizational loyalties.
2. Permissive—Rebel. The Permissive manager seeks affection and
positive effect from subordinates. However, the Rebel provides
negative feedback which causes frustration. Because of his need for
acceptance, the Permissive manager grants power withoutobligations
in the hopes of buying confirmation from the Rebel. As a result of
the Rebel's unwillingness to accept obligation at any level, the
Permissive makes greater concessions. The Rebel may go so far as
performing rash acts for which the manager is held responsible.
The Rebel is reinforced in his confrontiveness by further increments
of power, which perpetuate his Rebel behavior. This relationship is
characterized by the Permissive manager keeping all the OBLIGATION
and giving the Rebel the POWER.
3. Equalitarian—Critic. This relationship is primarily objective.
The Critic is not concerned with power for power's sake, but
requests enough to fulfill his task. Likewise, because the
Equalitarian is equally unconcerned about power, he readily shares
whatever power is necessary.
This relationship develops a feeling of mutual and interdependence.
Because objective management does not require emphasis on status
differences, there is no power struggle. The Critic, in his
interaction, obtains more power without seeking it than any other
To be Continued
For balance of this article, click on the below link:
Lean Manufacturing Articles and go to Series 02
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