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Manufacturing Roles

Part 3 of 5


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B. Subordinate Roles

1. Rebel. The Rebel firmly believes that individual survival and the search for power are acceptable behavior. He fears lack of respect and attempts to acquire power by confrontation. Most often, the Rebel is a trouble-maker, a complainer, and a "no-sayer" who blames others.
a. The Rebel prides himself on his role as a critic and his ability to suggest change. Consequently, he often is an innovator and does stress systems enough to generate change. He has little tolerance for weakness and continually tests his manager for weak points.
b. The Rebel wants and assumes POWER as quickly as possible but refuses OBLIGATION.
2. Ingratiator. The Ingratiator (submissive) is the organization man, the yes-man, or the brown-noser. The key to his survival is in support and protection, but he is not passive. He is actively manipulating his superior. This individual tends to be self-blaming and masochistic, but seeks power and status.
a. The Ingratiator has a high value for structure and traditional power. He is perceived as loyal and supportive, thereby increasing the likelihood of being the heir-apparent.
b. This role accepts OBLIGATION as a trade-off for later POWER.
3. Critic. The Critic or Cooperator is objective and solution-oriented. He is an idea man who is honestly critical. He seeks solutions and blames no one. The Critic sometimes appears cold and distant, but only because he has no desire to manipulate feelings.
a. The Critic works best where he can devote his energy to problem-solving without being required to support relationships. He is an excellent confi­dante who believes that the superior wants the truth.
b. The Critic accepts OBLIGATION, but requires enough POWER to complete the task.

Role Interactions

This can best be defined by looking at Figure 1. The matrix depicts the three leadership roles and the three follower roles with the possible interactions. These interactions can be subdivided into three major groups: (1) Complementary, (2) Non-complementary, (3) Negotiating. A discussion of each follows.

A. Role Interactions—Complementary

1. Authoritarian—Ingratiator. The Authoritarian manager tends to seek out persons who will affirm and support his policies. The "yes-man" will confirm the Authoritarian's action whether or not he agrees. However, the subordinate perceives that if the system is maintained, he will ultimately be given a superior position.

As a condition of employment, all subordinates recognize the need to surrender power. In this relationship, the Ingratiator gives up all power and is given all the obligation by the Authoritarian. This action will support the Authoritarian's ego, because the Ingratiator will be depen­dent upon him.
This role structure is self-perpetuating and tends to be supported by organizational loyalties.

2. Permissive—Rebel. The Permissive manager seeks affection and positive effect from subordinates. However, the Rebel provides negative feedback which causes frustration. Because of his need for acceptance, the Permissive manager grants power withoutobligations in the hopes of buying confir­mation from the Rebel. As a result of the Rebel's unwillingness to accept obligation at any level, the Permissive makes greater concessions. The Rebel may go so far as performing rash acts for which the manager is held responsible.

The Rebel is reinforced in his confrontiveness by further increments of power, which perpetuate his Rebel behavior. This relationship is characterized by the Permissive manager keeping all the OBLIGATION and giving the Rebel the POWER.

3. Equalitarian—Critic. This relationship is prima­rily objective. The Critic is not concerned with power for power's sake, but requests enough to fulfill his task. Likewise, because the Equalitar­ian is equally unconcerned about power, he readily shares whatever power is necessary.

This relationship develops a feeling of mutual and inter­dependence. Because objective management does not require emphasis on status differences, there is no power struggle. The Critic, in his interaction, obtains more power without seeking it than any other subordinate role.

To be Continued

For balance of this article, click on the below link:
Lean Manufacturing Articles and go to Series 02


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